* Abrasion: wearing away of a tooth due to abrasiveness
* Abscess: the formation of a sac of bacteria. Symptoms are swelling pain, throbbing, and sensation of heat
* Amalgam: a hard, durable filling made of metal alloys
* Anaesthesia: drug to block off any pain impulses from the nerves
* Analgesic: pain killer
* Ankylosis: teeth that do not fully erupt because they are attached to the bone
* Antibiotics: medication to fight off infection caused by bacteria
* Asepsis: sterilization of the surroundings and instruments to prevent infections
* Attrition: wearing away of a tooth due to the opposing tooth and grinding


* Bleaching: oxygenating and conditioning the teeth with an acid based gel
* Bridge: when missing teeth, a dentist can use two or more teeth present to bridge the space


* Calcification: the pulp is hardened due to calcium and phosphorous salts
* Calculus: hardened plaque
* Cavities: when acids decalcify the tooth enamel and disintegrates the dentin (the tissue layer under the enamel)
* Cementum: the dull yellow surface of a root
* Cingulum: an enlargement or bulge on the lingual aspect of the front teeth
* Contact point: an area where two adjacent teeth touch each other, flossing occurs in between contact points
* Crossbite: when the lower back teeth overlap the upper back teeth when closing the mouth
* Crowding: lack of space produces teeth that are overlapping
* Cusp: a point or peak on the top surface of a tooth


* Deciduous dentition: Baby teeth, the primary dentition, also known as the milk teeth
* Dentin: the hard tissue under the enamel and cementum
* Denture:
1. Full Denture: when the patient has no teeth (edentulous)
2. Immediate Denture: getting a denture at the time the patient gets teeth extracted
3. Partial Denture: when the patient has a few teeth (partially edentulous)
* Diastema: the space present when the cranial incisors are separated (a spacing between the teeth)


* Edgewise: orthodontic appliance
* Enamel: the hard shiny surface of a tooth
* Erosion: a dissolution of tooth due to an unknown reason
* Excision: cutting and harvesting the tissue usually for study of possible pathology
* Extraction: removal of a tooth


* Fistula: tract made by infection exiting often through the gingiva and resembling a pimple
* Full Denture: when the patient has no teeth (edentulous)
* Fusion: tooth appears double but a separation is present due to two teeth fusing together


* Germination: tooth appears double due to splitting of a single tooth germ
* Gingiva: the soft tissue that surrounds a tooth (the gum)
* Gingivitis: inflammation of the gingiva (bleeding gums)
* Graft: a piece of tissue taken from one area and placed at another
* Groove: a sharply defined linear depression


* Hutchinson’s teeth: screwdriver shaped teeth due to prenatal syphilis


* Immediate Denture: getting a denture at the time the patient gets teeth extracted
* Impacted Tooth: a tooth that is blocked fully or partially from exiting the gum line by adjacent tooth
1. Full bony extraction: the tooth is submerged in the bone, full bone removal is necessary
2. Fully soft tissue extraction: the tooth is submerged in the tissue, full cutting is necessary
3. Partly bony extraction: partial bone must be taken out to be able to reach the tooth to be extracted
4. Partly soft tissue extraction: partial cutting of the tissue is needed to reach the tooth to be extracted
* Implant: a non-removable substitute for a lost tooth. Implants are fabricated from body compatible bio-materials, most often titanium or one of its alloys and implants can vary in shape.
* Incision and Drainage: cutting of tissue in order to allow the infection to flow out and reduce pain and the swelling
* Inlay: restoration used when less than 3/4 of a tooth is present and the cusps are not missing
* Intravenous Sedation: putting someone to sleep with an IV


* Laminate Veneer: fingernail-like restoration made of porcelain or composite


* Mandible: the lower jaw
* Maxillae: the upper jaw
* Mouthguard: also called mouth protectors, are an important piece of protective face gear. It is recommended that mouthguards be worn during any recreational sport that might injure the mouth


* Nightguard: occlusal guard to prevent grinding of teeth during the night


* Occlusal guard: appliance used to prevent grinding of teeth (nightguard)
* Onlay: restoration used when 3/4 of a tooth and part of the cusps are missing
* Open Bite: due mostly to thumb sucking, the front teeth do not touch when closing the mouth
* Overbite: when the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth when closing the mouth
* Overdenture: denture made over existing teeth or root tips that have had root canal. These roots are left there in order to reduce bone loss
* Overjet: the distance between the upper and lower front teeth, when the upper are bucked out and the lower are more refracted inside towards the tongue


* Palate, Hard: the front part of the roof of the mouth
* Palate, Soft: the back part of the roof of the mouth
* Paraesthesia: lack of sensation at the sensory level
* Papillate: gums between teeth
* Partial Denture: when the patient has a few teeth (partially edentulous)
* Pericoronitis: gingival tissue area of an empty tooth that is inflamed (most often the Wisdom Tooth)
* Periodontitis: inflammation of the bone (bone loss)
* Pin and Tube: orthodontic appliance
* Plaque: film of material made up of saliva, molds and bacteria, dead cells, blood cells, food particles, and bacterial residues
* Post and Core: used in order to build up tooth to be able to place a crown on it
* Pulp: the center of a tooth made up of vessels and nerve tissue


* Recontouring: reshaping the teeth
* Retainer: appliance to hold the teeth in a certain position
* Ribbon Arch: orthodontic appliance
* Root Canal: removal of the nerve tissue due to infection from cavities or trauma, and filled with gutta percha


* Scaling: scraping of the tooth above the gum
* Sealant: a physical barrier to decay, placed on top of tooth to protect from bacteria
* Sinus: air spaces above the upper teeth
* Space Maintainer: appliance used to allow teeth to come into a certain area
* Splint: appliance used to stabilize loose teeth
* Succedaneous denition: the permanent teeth (32)
* Suture: stitches


* Teeth:
1. Canines: the cornerstone of the mouth, the fangs or the cuspid (upper and lower)
2. Incisors, Lateral: the next teeth on either side of the central incisors (upper and lower)
3. Incisors, Central: the two front teeth, the cutting teeth (upper and lower)
4. Molars: the back teeth, the chewing teeth (upper and lower)
5. Premolar: the middle teeth or the bicuspid (upper and lower)
* TMJ (TMD): temporomandibular joint disorder, the place near the ear where the lower joins the skull. A defect of the disc or other parts are involved. A clicking noise is most common with this disorder


* Uvula: a small fleshy structure hanging from the center of the soft palate


* Zoom Whitening System: a one-time procedure that makes teeth up to 8 shades whiter